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Crypto Drop Box.
Contains figures from Hill's patent application, pictures of a German Enigma machine, and other material. Maintained by the American Cryptogram Association.

Sarah Flannery with David Flannery, In Code: A Mathematical Journey. Workman Publishing, 2001.
A very engaging and readable account by Sarah Flannery, whose high school project on cryptography (done when she was 16) won the 1999 European Union Young Scientists contest. Part memoir, part puzzle book, and part mathematical exploration, and all very entertaining.

Martin Gardner, Codes, Ciphers and Secret Writing. Dover Publishing, 1984.
Explains in simple terms how to encode and decode messages in various ciphers, describes coding machines, and gives formulas for invisible ink. Appropriate for middle school students.

David Kahn, The Codebreakers; The Comprehensive History of Secret Communication from Ancient Times to the Internet. Charles Scribner's Sons, 1996.
A massive (nearly 1200 pages!), but very readable historical account of cryptography. A classic.

Robert E. Lewand, Cryptological Mathematics. Mathematical Association of America, 2000.
Covers the essential number theory required to understand various encryption schemes. Requires mathematics at about the level of a good high-school student.

Scott Sutherland, fsqFsHn sGGousG (Secret Messages).$\sim$scott/Book331/crypto.html.
Part of my own text aimed at doing mathematics with computers, for math majors in their junior or sophomore year of college. Uses the Maple programming language.

Encryption, article in Wikipedia.
A good online article with more details about most of the material here, and links to much more.

Scott Sutherland